Major General Mrinal Suman
History is most unforgiving. As historical mistakes cannot be undone,
they have complex cascading effect on a nation’s future. Here are seven
historical blunders that have changed the course of independent India’s
history and cast a dark shadow over its future. These costly mistakes
will continue to haunt India for generations. They have been recounted
here in a chronological order with a view to highlight the inadequacies
of India’s decision-making apparatus and the leadership’s incompetence
to act with vision.
1. Kashmir Mess
There can be no better example of shooting one’s own foot than India’s
clumsy handling of the Kashmir issue. It is a saga of naivety, blinkered
vision and inept leadership.
Hari Singh was the reigning monarch of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in
1947. He was vacillating when tribal marauders invaded Kashmir in
October 1947, duly backed by the Pakistan army. Unable to counter them,
Hari Singh appealed to India for assistance and agreed to accede to
India. Indian forces blunted the invasion and re-conquered vast areas.
First, India erred by not insisting on unequivocal accession of the
state to the Dominion of India and granted special status to it through
Article 380 of the Constitution.
Secondly, when on the verge of evicting all invaders and recapturing the
complete state, India halted operations on 1 January 1949 and appealed
to the Security Council. It is the only case in known history wherein a
country, when on the threshold of complete victory, has voluntarily
forsaken it in the misplaced hope of winning admiration of the world
Thirdly and most shockingly, the Indian leadership made a highly
unconstitutional offer of plebiscite in the UN.
Forty percent area of the state continues to be under Pakistan’s
control, providing it a strategic land route to China through the
Karakoram ranges. As a fall out of the unresolved dispute, India and
Pakistan have fought numerous wars and skirmishes with no solution in
sight. Worse, the local politicians are holding India to ransom by
playing the Pak card. Kashmir issue is a self-created cancerous furuncle
that defies all medications and continues to bleed the country.
2: Ignoring Chinese Threats and Neglecting the Military
Memories of the year 1962 will always trouble the Indian psyche. A
nation of India’s size had lulled itself into believing that its
protestations and platitudes of peaceful co-existence would be
reciprocated by the world. It was often stated that a peace-loving
nation like India did not need military at all. The armed forces were
neglected. The political leadership took pride in denigrating the
military leadership and meddled in internal affairs of the services to
promote sycophancy. Foreign policy was in shambles. The intelligence
apparatus was rusty.
Even though signs of China’s aggressive intentions were clearly
discernible for years in advance, the Indian leadership decided to keep
its eyes shut in the fond hope that the problem would resolve itself.
When China struck, the country was caught totally unprepared. Troops
were rushed to snowbound areas with summer clothing and outdated rifles.
Despite numerous sagas of gallantry, the country suffered terrible
embarrassment. India was on its knees. With the national morale and
pride in tatters, India was forced to appeal to all nations for military
aid. Inept and incompetent leadership had forced a proud nation to find
solace in Lata Mangeshkar’s Ae Mere Watan Ke Logo.
3: The Tashkent Agreement and Return of Haji Pir Pass
Following the cease-fire after the Indo-Pak War of 1965, a
Russian-sponsored agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in
Tashkent on 10 January 1966. Under the agreement, India agreed to return
the strategic Haji Pir pass to Pakistan which it had captured in August
1965 against heavy odds and at a huge human cost. The pass connects
Poonch and Uri sectors in Jammu and Kashmir and reduces the distance
between the two sectors to 15 km whereas the alternate route entails a
travel of over 200 km. India got nothing in return except an undertaking
by Pakistan to abjure war, an undertaking which meant little as Pakistan
never had any intention of honouring it.
Return of the vital Haji Pir pass was a mistake of monumental
proportions for which India is suffering to date. In addition to denying
a direct link between Poonch and Uri sectors, the pass is being
effectively used by Pakistan to sponsor infiltration of terrorists into
India. Inability to resist Russian pressure was a manifestation of the
spineless Indian foreign policy and shortsighted leadership.
4: The Simla Agreement
With the fall of Dhaka on 16 December 1971, India had scored a decisive
victory over Pakistan. Over 96,000 Pak soldiers were taken Prisoners of
War (PoWs). Later, an agreement was signed between the two countries on
2 July 1972 at Shimla. Both countries agreed to exchange all PoWs,
respect the line of control (LOC) in Jammu and Kashmir and refrain from
the use of threat or force. Additionally, Bhutto gave a solemn verbal
undertaking to accept LOC as the de facto border.
India released all Pak PoWs in good faith. Pakistan, on the other hand,
released only 617 Indian PoWs while holding back 54 PoWs who are still
languishing in Pakistani jails. The Indian Government has admitted this
fact a number of times but has failed to secure their release. India
failed to use the leverage of 96,000 Pak PoWs to discipline Pakistan. A
rare opportunity was thus wasted. Forget establishing permanent peace in
the sub-continent, India failed to ensure release of all Indian PoWs – a
criminal omission by all accounts.
The naivety of the Indian delegation can be seen from the fact that it
allowed Pakistan to bluff its way through at Shimla. The Indian
leadership was fooled into believing Pakistan’s sincerity.
Unquestionably, Pakistan never intended to abide by its promises, both
written and verbal. Fruits of a hard-fought victory in the battlefield
were frittered away on the negotiating table by the bungling leadership.
5: The Nuclear Muddle
Subsequent to the Chinese Nuclear Test at Lop Nor in 1964, India showed
rare courage in carrying out its first nuclear test on 18 May 1974 at
Pokharan. Outside the five permanent members of the UN Security Council,
India was the only nation to prove its nuclear capability. The whole
country was ecstatic and every Indian felt proud of its scientific
prowess. But Indians had not contended with their Government’s penchant
for converting opportunity into adversity and squandering hard-earned
Instead of asserting India’s newly acquired status of a nuclear power
and demanding recognition, India turned apologetic and tried to convince
the world that it had no nuclear ambitions. Strangely, it termed the
Pokharan test as a ‘peaceful nuclear explosion’ – a term unheard of till
then. The Defence Minister went to the extent of claiming that the
Indian nuclear experiment was ‘only for mining, oil and gas prospecting,
for finding underground sources of water, for diverting rivers, for
scientific and technological knowledge.’ It was a self-deprecating
stance. Displaying acute inferiority complex, India did not want to be
counted as a member of the exclusive nuclear club.
Criticism and sanctions were expected and must have been factored in
before opting for the nuclear test. Whereas a few more assertive
follow-on tests would have forced the world to accept India as a member
of the nuclear club, India went into an overdrive to placate the world
through a self-imposed moratorium on further testing. It lost out on all
the advantages provided to it by its scientists. It suffered sanctions
and yet failed to gain recognition as a nuclear power. The country
missed golden opportunities due to the timidity and spinelessness of its
6: The Kandahar hijacking
The hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft to Kandahar by Pakistani
terrorists in December 1999 will continue to rile India’s self-respect
for long. According to the Hindustan Times, India lost face and got
reduced to begging for co-operation from the very regimes that were
actively undermining its internal security. The hijacking revealed how
ill-prepared India was to face up to the challenges of international
The eight-day long ordeal ended only after India’s National Security
Adviser brazenly announced that an agreement had been reached for the
release of all the hostages in exchange for three Kashmiri militants
including Maulana Masood Azhar. Sadly, the Prime Minister claimed credit
for forcing the hijackers to climb down on their demands. The worst was
yet to follow. India’s Foreign Minister decided to accompany the
released militants to Kandahar, as if seeing off honoured guests.
The government’s poor crisis-management skills and extreme complacency
in security matters allowed the hijackers to take off from Amritsar
airport after 39 minutes halt for refueling, thereby letting the problem
get out of control. India’s much-vaunted decision-making apparatus
collapsed and was completely paralysed by the audacity of a bunch of
motivated fanatics. It was a comprehensive failure of monumental
proportions. India’s slack and amateurish functioning made the country
earn the tag of a soft nation which it will find very difficult to shed.
7: Illegal Immigration and Passage of IMDT Act
It is a standard practice all over the world that the burden of proving
one’s status as a bonafide citizen of a country falls on the accused. It
is so for India as well under Foreigners Act, 1946. Political expediency
forced the Government to make an exception for Assam. In one of the most
short-sighted and anti-national moves, India passed the Illegal Migrants
– Determination by Tribunals (IMDT) Act of 1984 for Assam. It shifted
the onus of proving the illegal status of a suspected immigrant on to
the accuser, which was a tall and virtually impossible order. Detection
and deportation of illegal immigrants became impossible.
Whenever demands were raised for repealing the Act, the Congress, the
Left Front and the United Minorities Front resisted strongly. Illegal
immigrants had become the most loyal vote bank of the Congress. Worse,
every protest against the Act was dubbed as ‘anti-minority’ , thereby
imparting communal colour to an issue of national security. The
government’s ‘pardon’ of all Bangladeshis who had come in before 1985
was another unconstitutional act that aggravated the problem.
The Act was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on July
13, 2005, more than 20 years after its enactment. The Apex Court was of
the view that the influx of Bangladeshi nationals into Assam posed a
threat to the integrity and security of northeastern region.
Unfortunately, immense damage had already been done to the demography of
Assam and the local people of Assam had been reduced to minority status
in certain districts. Illegal immigrants have come to have a
stranglehold over electioneering to the extent that no party can hope to
come to power without their support. Nearly 30 Islamic groups are
thriving in the area to further their Islamist and Pan-Bangladesh
It is incomprehensible that a nation’s leadership can stoop so low and
endanger even national security for garnering votes.