Many engineers have been recorded dead mysteriously because of there mistake/ carelessness in the workshops. In 1998, a 2nd year student in Nigeria University got his hand cut off when handling a latte machine and if you make more research about how many engineer that have been dead or injured in there respective organization without carrying, understanding the law or rules and regulation that is guarding Engineering Courses, you will find out that what I’m saying is noting but the truth. So I will like to through more light on this issue.
Accidents in the workshop claim far too many victims and approximately 70% of these accidents are caused by neglect or carelessness of on the part of the engineer (profession or Road side), consequently the need fore care cannot be overstressed in this article. The points that I want to emphasize on, is to warm our engineer’s of some dangers that is likely to meet in workshops.
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A tidy workshop can help to reduce the number of accidents and also attract God and Human being to your shop because cleanness is next to Godliness.
Tools and components should not be left where someone may fall over them and they must never be allowed to obstruct gangway or passages.
Avoid placing tools or any harmful components upon a bench. A tidy bench reflects a tidy, methodical business like mind, which is the basis of accident preventions.
Oil, grease, Fuel and diesel on the workshop floor are dangerous and should be avoid or prevents by covering it with sand or sawdust.
SOME ACCIDENT THAT IS LIKELY TO MEET IN WORKSHOPS ARE STATED AS FOLLOWS:
ACCIDENT AT WORK BENCH
Check that the vice is properly fastened to the bench securely clamping the work in the Vice. A long component projecting beyond the edge of the bench should have a coloured piece of materials tied to the projecting end, so that it will draw your attention to it.
Always use the correct size, type and length of spanners for the particular jobs; spanners that slip often result in personal injury. Note: Do not loss what you can not tight.
Before making use of hammer, make sure that the head is firmly attached to the handle to avoid hard it known.
Files are the most import: it should be the correct size of the file and must not be split. On no account should a file be used without a handle or the tang may pierce the palm of your hand.
The head of a chisel should not be allowed to develop burrs, since this may cause either the hammer or mallet to glance off and strike your hand or the chisel to slip and inflict a serve cut on your hand.
ACCIDENT ASSOCIATED WITH MACHINES
Before using any machine, make sure that you can control it and that you can put it off incase of emergency or go and get the manual of the manufacturer, study it well before putting on the machine.
Guards are fitted around belt drives, gear wheels, spindles or other similar rotating parts for the operator’s protection and should not be removed. If necessary, please do switch off the machine be for carrying out any work on it. Note: All rotating parts of the machine can not be guarded, for example, work held between centres, boring bars and drills; because loose clothing can easily be caught causing the operation to be drawn into the machine it becomes necessary to that you must wear a good fitting overall with close fitting cuffs. Avoid wearing ties, long hairs. I am an eye witness to this. In my school Federal Science and Technical College Awka, Anambra State, my classmate Nonso Okonkwo drawn out a man who is wearing a tie out of his engine. The man was caught to the pulley with his tie when he wanted to check the cause of his car break-down.
Make sure that both the tools and work are securely clamped. When drilling sheet metal secure clamping is vital because as the drill breaks through, there is tendency for the work to be whirled round. The additional precaution of a stop fixed to the machine table is also advisable.
Turning and swarf are very sharp and should never be removing with the hands. Use brush or metal scraper. Never feel for a burr round the edge of a component. You may find it!
When using the grading machine, make sure that the glass visor is in position, or you can wear goggles to protect your eyes from small flying piece of grit.
DENGERS FROM FIRE AND FUNES
A great fire risk surrounds all mechanical workshops owing to the presence of petrol grease e.t.c. which is very volatile and highly inflammable. Careless disposal of still burning matches or cigarette ends can cause a serious fire. Present discovery have made it clear that metal that are constantly in mesh can cause fire out-break where there is storage of fuels.
All trace of petrol or fuel oil must be removed before applying heat to a petrol tank. Even a small quantity of petrol left in a seam or on the inner surfaces of the tank, vaporized during the repair work, can produce an explosive mixture with air in the tank. So you are advise to wash the tank very well with detergent (OMO)
If the tank is made with aluminum or aluminum alloy, do not use a strong alaki, such as caustic soda, since this will react with the aluminum and produce hydrogen which is an explosive gas. Always wear some protective against alkali splashes. After boiling, examine the inside of the container by smelling and by special inspection torch light. Alternatively, the tank may be subjected to a jet of low pressure steam but there must be sufficient outlet for the steam and condensate. Whatever kind you may choose an additional precaution of filling the vessel with water during welding or soldering should be adopted. You can allow a small space where some piece of air or bubble can pass out through the tank.
Exhaust fumes can be dangerous, particularly if the mixture strength is too rich. Some form of exhaust extraction is essential and fumes should be ducted away directly from the exhaust pipe to a suitable point outside the workshop. However, if this service is not available and the workshop is badly ventilated the doors and windows must be opened when the engine is running. Service pits tend to collect fumes and care should be taken if working in one with the engine running.
Note: You must have a fire extinguisher for emergency fire out brake.
COMPRESSIN OF AIR
A compressor is normally found in Automobile workshops. Its safety valve should be set to open at the correct blow-off pressure, regular inspection to ensure that oil is not passing into the receiver should be made, and the receiver should be drained every night.
To young inexperienced apprentices the use of compressed air is something of a novelty and they may think that it is a joke to aim the nozzle at workmates. This practice is highly dangerous, as air entering the human body from any direction and at any pressure above that of the atmosphere (other than when administrated under medical supervision) can, any often does, result in death. Consequently the lethal nature of compressed air cannot be overstressed.
Another malpractice is blowing of compressed air tangentially into the balls or rollers of race, whilst the centre track is supported in the fingers, the speed attained by the outer track is high enough for it to disintegrate and serious injury can be inflicted on all in the immediate vicinity. The compressor must be serviced by a competent mechanic and the isolater switched off each night.
DANGER IN THE USE OF GREASING EQUIPMENT
Greasing or oil from high – pressure grease gun leaves the nozzle in a fine spray at between 35 to 70 MN/m2 (500 and 10, 000 pounds per square inch). Their careless use may cause a serious accident, even at a distance; the nozzle jets on the manual high-pressure guns can be just as dangerous. Never point the gun at another person, keep your fingers away from trigger until the nozzle is against the grease nipple, do not put a finger over the jet whilst holding the trigger.
If an accident does occur, get medical attention immediately. It may save a finger or a hand.
When welding, always goggles or a shield to protect your eyes from the glare.
Protective cloth should be worn to reduce the risk of burns.
Learn how to use the equipment properly; ox-acetylene sets are dangerous if not handled correctly. To reduce the risk of fire, and explosion, the oxygen bottle and fittings should be kept free of oil and grease.
Do not attempt to take for leaks with watches, use water.
Do not attempt to repair or fit any pipes or hoses other than these recommended by the manufacturer.
Do not use the acetylene bottle when it is lying on the ground, always stand the bottles upright and fasten them securely to a bench or trolley.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS AND CABLES
Trailing cables from portable electrical tools, such as drills and lamps, can be dangerous; and every effort should be made to keep the cables away from sharp edges.
All portable electrical tool and lamps must have a three wire system, that is positive or live, neutral and earth. The earth connection is of vital importance to ensure the safety of the operation. Hand tools should be 110 volts and lamps 12 volts if 100% safety is to be assured.
Damp floors can prove dangerous if a fault develops in the equipment.
Try to avoid damp floors, especially if the cable only has two wires, i.e. no earthing wire.
Do not use the wire to remove the plug from its socket.
Inspect the cable regularly for damage to the insulation.
Frayed or damaged wires should be reported to an electrician.
Safety is defined as the state of being safe and protected from damager or harm and while Precaution may be defined as something that is done in advance in order to prevent problems or to avoid damages. So in engineering terms, it is define as the acts of knowing the rules and regulation that is involve in handling of tools and rules that is needed to understand before operating any machines. So if carefully studied and practice you will be free from some workshop accident. I will like you to go through the references to catch more information regarding to this topic safety precaution in workshop.
i Abboult Technical Drawing Blakie.
ii Chapman Elementary workshop Arnoild
iii. Higgins Engineering Metallurgy Hedder & Stoughton.
iv. Pritchard Workshop Processors Hedder & Stoughton
v. Motor Vehicle Technology J.A Dolan
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