I: Constitutions of Egypt

A constitution is a system, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles that govern an organization or political entity. In the case of countries, this term refers specifically to a national constitution defining the fundamental political principles, and establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of a government. Most national constitutions guarantee certain rights to the people.

1923 Constitution (1923-1952) after the end of World War I, the Egyptian Revolution broke out in 1919 calling for liberty, democracy and independence. The result was the declaration made on the 28th February, 1922 which recognized Egypt as an independent state (with some reservations) and terminated Egypt as a British colony. Based on this, a new Egyptian Constitution was published in April 1923 by a 30-member legislative committee that included representatives of political parties, as well as national movement leaders.

1956 Constitution After the revolution that led to the overthrow of the monarch and the declaration of the republic, President Nasser adopted the nation’s first written constitution as a republic in 1956.

1963 Provisional Constitution In 1964, President Nasser once again introduced a new written constitution for the republic as the 1963 Provisional Constitution,leading to a 350-elected member National Assembly, (made up of mostly farmers and the hard labor workers).

The 1971 Constitution In 1971, when Anwar Sadat became president, he adopted a new democratic constitution that would allow more freedoms, a return of a sensible parliamentary life,some democratic practice with the return of political parties and a bicameral parliamentary system.
This Constitution is the fourth adopted constitution since the declaration of the republic and is named “The Permanent Egyptian Constitution”. Since its ratification, it was amended a total of three times by two presidents, the first being in 1980 by President Anwar Al Sadat in the end of his presidency and the two other times by President Hosni Mubarak in both 2005 and March 2007.

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The First Page of the 1923 Constitution, written by King Fouad.

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